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G3-PLC technology solution for intelligent charging pile of electric vehicle

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G3-PLC technology solution for intelligent charging pile of electric vehicle

Date of release:2018-03-02 Author: Click:

Electric vehicles (EV) and plug - in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are forming an unprecedented, dynamic electric energy consumer market with an unprecedented charging pile, and the relationship between the power supplier (electric power company) and the owner of the car is becoming increasingly clear. Many power companies have or are planning to provide special rate standards for EV users, including fixed monthly rates.


EV has injected new energy and demand into the power market. In fact, the interdependence between EV and energy providers has begun to take shape. Due to the large capacity of EV, usually 10kVH, it is necessary to absorb 80A or even more current in a few hours. This adds significant pressure to the power grid equipment, especially for low-voltage transformers, which may cause overheating or even malfunction when supplying electricity to the user's home. In addition, the electrical energy stored by the EV can also generate electric current, transport electricity to the power grid, in order to solve the power demand during the peak period of power supply, and avoid the high carbon emission of diesel generators.


  EV has injected new energy and demand into the power market. In fact, the interdependence between EV and energy providers has begun to take shape. Due to the large capacity of EV, usually 10kVH, it is necessary to absorb 80A or even more current in a few hours. This adds significant pressure to the power grid equipment, especially for low-voltage transformers, which may cause overheating or even malfunction when supplying electricity to the user's home. In addition, the electrical energy stored by the EV can also generate electric current, transport electricity to the power grid, in order to solve the power demand during the peak period of power supply, and avoid the high carbon emission of diesel generators.


  This paper analyzes the key requirements of reliable EV-EVSE communication, and the data show that the G3-PLC system fully meets the new standards of the automotive and power industry. The G3-PLC scheme tested and tested around the world is the best low frequency communication scheme.


  EV-EVSE communication standard

  In the past three years, vehicle manufacturers have investigated and tested various EV-EVSE communication schemes. Recently, the auto alliance has also locked its test results into two power line communication (PLC) solutions and focused on G3-PLC as a low frequency communication option. A practical communication plan faces many challenges, and designers are actively exploring any feasible party.案。


The key principle that the communication scheme needs to follow is:

Reliability -- reliable data communication and components satisfying automotive grade requirements.

Meeting EMC, joint interference and crosstalk restrictions

Global power line specification

Work through the control line

Working in an AC or DC power grid

• provide secure networking support for energy management systems.

In addition, automotive solutions pose special challenges for IC designers and manufacturers. IC must be able to withstand bad working conditions, and must work reliably for 10 to 20 years to meet the requirements of vehicle related certification / quality assurance system.


The best choice of G3-PLC - EV-EVSE communication technology


  For some time, in the automotive industry research, the power industry is developing a high reliability G3-PLC program with a life span of 10 years. These achievements have been supported by the largest power companies in the world, including the French power group (EDF). At present, G3-PLC power line modem has been launched, which can work in a harsh environment with negative signal to noise ratio (SNR). No matter how important the importance of G3-PLC technology is, it has become the key to ensure reliable communication under any EV-EVSE condition.


  The results of the independent DC charging test funded by the US Department of energy in 2009 prove the difficulties faced by the EV-EVSE communication. The test results show that the Maxim G3-PLC power line modem has high reliable communication ability and can adapt to any working conditions.


Strong noise charging cable


Most of the independent PLC schemes operate at lower currents, and G3-PLC is the only PLC system capable of achieving reliable communication under 250A. The test data (Figure 1) shows that the noise may be 20dB or even higher than the signal. In addition, the frequency of the noise generated by the switching power supply is different, depending on the switching power used in the switch. The G3-PLC system uses proprietary technology to cope with harsh environmental conditions, including reliable working mode (Robo mode), adaptive frequency mapping, two level error correction and two-dimensional comb filter. These functions are introduced in detail in IEEE ISPLC literature and verified by field tests. G3-PLC can achieve reliable data communication across transformers.


Charging pile

 

 

EMC inhibition


Before the launch of G3-PLC transceiver, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has been a major obstacle to PLC's outdoor communication. However, because the G3-PLC system works at a lower frequency (below 500kHz) and aims at the global smart grid design, it overcomes the EMC problem. In fact, preliminary tests have shown that in the low frequency band (500kHz), the EMC level is lower than the CISPR-25 threshold, and a large number of experiments have proved this.


Joint interference and crosstalk


Usually, the charging station will charge multiple parallel electric vehicles. Once the communication error occurs, the charging error will be caused. Therefore, joint interference and crosstalk become the main concerns of EV-EVSE networks. The automotive industry initially considered adopting wireless communication in this application, but it proved that the scheme could not guarantee reliable joint charging.


PLC ensures that EV is properly charged for charging, and G3-PLC technology is used to solve this problem. When the EVSE switch is disconnected, communication cannot be carried out (Figure 2), ensuring that the open contact or communication between the charging lines is not possible in the EVSE with multiple charging lines. This function has been further confirmed in the recent ISO 15118 PT4 test, which increases the G3-PLC signal to 10 times the normal working level to introduce crosstalk. Crosstalk is not detected under nominal conditions or even more noisy working conditions.


When using G3-PLC, sending and receiving signals show that no communication data globalization scheme between open contacts is the key goal of the auto manufacturer. The G3-PLC system has been widely tested in many regions around the world, working in the licensed band of 10kHz to 500kHz countries. In order to support the regional differences in the licensed frequency bands, the Maxim G3-PLC solution provides programmability to meet the requirements of the deployment area. Thus, in the test of the European power company, the G3-PLC system is programmed in the CENELEC A band (the highest 95kHz); in the United States test, the G3-PLC is set in the FCC band (the highest 490kHz).


Working on the control line


When working on the control line, the G3-PLC transceiver needs to overcome more design challenges. In order to satisfy the SAE J1772 specification, two key factors need to be paid attention to when working on the control line: ultra low voltage and coupling problems, so as to avoid PWM interference. Considering the robustness of the G3-PLC system, it is not a problem to work at low voltage (and low current) conditions. Figure 3 shows that it can work below 500mV without loss of packets and no retransmission.


In addition, attention should also be paid to avoiding PWM signal overload (adverse effects on slew rate) and avoiding PWM harmonics from 1kHz and 12V signals. To ensure that the PWM signal frequency band does not overlap with the G3-PLC transmission band, the G3-PLC system works above 150kHz. To ensure that the PWM slew rate is within the limits of the system, the inductance coupling (better than capacitance coupling) is preferentially considered.


Multifunctionality brings more possibilities


The G3-PLC scheme has been widely tested by many power companies worldwide as an alternative power source. SAE sponsored experiments show that the G3-PLC system can send tens of millions of data on vehicle power consumption with zero error. Because the G3-PLC system can work on power and non power lines (AC power grid, control line, CAN or any medium), it can provide reliable reliability guarantee.


The G3-PLC scheme attaches great importance to the advanced electric meter infrastructure (AMI) and opens a new door for the EV-EVSE communication on the AC network: the G3-PLC system can communicate directly with the electric meter. Figure 4 shows a complete ecosystem supported by G3-PLC. It is expected that the EVSE in the family will have an independent and dedicated circuit breaker, providing direct access to external power circuit breakers to avoid the effect of phase difference.


Some power companies have added IPv6 addressing to the G3-PLC system before the auto makers make requests. In fact, as Stephen Shankland published in ZDNet, IPv4 addresses are almost exhausted, so supporting IPv6 is a top priority. The G3-PLC scheme adopts 6LowPAN compression scheme to ensure the support of real IPv6 addressing. After adopting the real IPv6 network, PHY and MAC are not sure that the energy management solutions can seamlessly switch over the G3-PLC network.

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Key word:Chargingpile

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