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Chinas electric vehicle charging pile infrastructure

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Chinas electric vehicle charging pile infrastructure

Date of release:2016-07-27 Author: Click:

At the beginning of the charge infrastructure program issued by the State Council, a few articles have been read recently. People who know and don't understand it begin to comment on it. We still look at the actual situation carefully.


Charging pile

Figure 1 the number of electric vehicles and charging piles in the world comes from IEA EV Outlook 2015.


At present, China has 30 thousand charging piles, which are distributed in the whole country.


In the final analysis, the country wants to transfer the energy path of personal traffic and public transportation to a large number of energy sources. However, the transfer of small number of words is not useful, and the transfer has a great impact on the distribution network of the country.


Charging pile

Charging pile

Figure 2 simple architecture diagram of power grid


In fact, we have done a lot of Study in China, mainly simulating the influence of more electric vehicle charging on distribution network and power grid itself. Some of the domestic articles have done some study.


1.. Statistical modeling method for charging power demand of Tian Li Ting electric vehicle


Research on the impact of 2. yellow run electric vehicles on the grid load


3. Wang fan electric vehicle access to the distribution network operation research and analysis of the impact


4. Ma Lingling electric vehicle charging and discharging impact on the grid


5. Yang Yu large scale electric vehicle charging demand and influencing factors


What's more interesting is that we can analyze the charging problem of urban and rural areas through our own assessment. In the "preliminary idea of creating a world - class" distribution network in the core of Pudong, Shanghai, we take out the demonstration area and consider whether it is feasible to build a charging facility in it.


The power supply network of the whole system is as follows: 22 users of 35kV high voltage in the core area, 155 users with high voltage of 10kV, 5014 low voltage non resident users and 45272 households with low voltage residents. The overall maximum load of the core area is about 376MW.


220kV north power source basically comes from 220kV Dongchang station; southern from 220kV Pudong, Lianyun station. The average maximum load rate in 2013 was 58.2% (the loading ratio was 1.72).


(110kV 110 (35) kV substation 14, 11 in the area, 3 outside the area, and the average highest load rate in 2013 is 43.6% (tolerance ratio is 2.29).


The utilization ratio of 10kV is 81.9%, and the interval utilization rate is 15.1%. In particular, the 6 is serious in the North


    

Charging pile

Charging pile

Fig. 3 220/110/35/10kV grade three distribution network in Pudong demonstration area

Figure 2 simple architecture diagram of power grid


In fact, we have done a lot of Study in China, mainly simulating the influence of more electric vehicle charging on distribution network and power grid itself. Some of the domestic articles have done some study.


  1. . Statistical modeling method for charging power demand of Tian Li Ting electric vehicle

  2. Research on the impact of 2. yellow run electric vehicles on the grid load

3. Wang fan electric vehicle access to the distribution network operation research and analysis of the impact


4. Ma Lingling electric vehicle charging and discharging impact on the grid


5. Yang Yu large scale electric vehicle charging demand and influencing factors


What's more interesting is that we can analyze the charging problem of urban and rural areas through our own assessment. In the "preliminary idea of creating a world - class" distribution network in the core of Pudong, Shanghai, we take out the demonstration area and consider whether it is feasible to build a charging facility in it.


The power supply network of the whole system is as follows: 22 users of 35kV high voltage in the core area, 155 users with high voltage of 10kV, 5014 low voltage non resident users and 45272 households with low voltage residents. The overall maximum load of the core area is about 376MW.


220kV north power source basically comes from 220kV Dongchang station; southern from 220kV Pudong, Lianyun station. The average maximum load rate in 2013 was 58.2% (the loading ratio was 1.72).


(110kV 110 (35) kV substation 14, 11 in the area, 3 outside the area, and the average highest load rate in 2013 is 43.6% (tolerance ratio is 2.29).


The utilization ratio of 10kV is 81.9%, and the interval utilization rate is 15.1%. In particular, the 6 is serious in the North


   

Charging pile

Charging pile

Fig. 4 typical electricity load of Shanghai residents (different regions and seasons)

2) electric car charging


It is still difficult to satisfy most people's dream of recharging new energy vehicles. The main reason is that the design of our distribution network is more conservative. It is also a more difficult thing to suppose that it is a more difficult thing to design distribution circuits for all electric vehicles in the underground parking lot as shown in Figure 5, especially the underground garage has the property of civil defense. The electric load in the underground garage mainly includes the fan, the pump and the fire fighting linkage equipment. The lighting load mainly includes the normal lighting and the emergency lighting load and so on. All the electrical equipment are 220/380V low voltage power use load. Fire water pumps, fire automatic alarm, automatic fire extinguishing, smoke exhausting equipment, fire emergency lighting and evacuation indicator are one level load, and the electric load of underground garage is 1100KW.


1. because of the requirements of fire protection, the parking spaces are all spaced according to the requirements of the fire zone. When a position needs to connect the wiring harness, it needs to be designed according to the requirements of the regulations.


2. because the power distribution system does not consider the user's power outage in the underground garage, the charging load can only be taken from the spare load, and the connection is limited in the various distribution cabinets.


3. because of the non preinstalled system, we face the problem of sequence interference. When the electric vehicle is in the community, the upgrading of the design system of the public area is a very complicated problem.


We think again, the current ordinary electric cars are generally 3.3KW, some cars are 6.6KW, and some can achieve 10KW, the largest is a double charge 20kW, according to the design consideration of the load is 10% out (attention, the design load needs to consider many problems), only to meet the needs of 15~30 cars, or even less. Because of the current distribution system design in China, the electric vehicle is not considered from the electric standard, and the renewal cost of the distribution system is costly. So the method of overlaying the fixed load is not feasible.


Charging pile

Figure 5 an electric car parking space

3) potential power supply reliability impact


If the above upgrading factors are taken into consideration, the upgrade of the load has a certain impact on the power supply reliability of the power grid. In many cases, the people's stores and the commercial electricity industry are all together. If the equipment is not kept up, it will cause a lot of problems, especially the original 10kV network structure. According to materials, the reliability of power supply in Pudong is 99.9820% in 2010-2012 years. It is at a relatively high level in China, but slightly lower than that in the whole urban area of Shanghai. Compared with the international advanced power grids in Singapore, Tokyo, Hongkong and Paris, the gap is relatively large.


Charging pile

 

Charging pile

 

Charging pile


Charging pile

Figure 6 10KV distribution network architecture and power supply reliability

In the city:


  1. without any incentive, the electric vehicle will start charging when it is connected to the power grid when it is berthing. The time for users to access the power grid is mainly around 8:30 and 19:30, so the charging load of these two moments has increased sharply and the load curve has been spiking. Theoretically, the load of residential car parks, community distribution, community power distribution and the upwards system is affirmative. In view of the different design requirements of the current residential buildings, the impact is uncertain.

2. the introduction of peak and valley electricity prices has resulted in users charging at 0 a.m. in the valley. At 0 a.m., the power grid load increased sharply, indicating that the centralized charging behavior of electric vehicles has caused a great impact on the grid, especially at the beginning of the valley period. The electricity price mechanism has little impact on the currently expensive electric vehicles. Compared to the cost of cars, electricity charges are also small. But I believe that this mechanism works well and is valuable.

3. the Power Grid Corp can directly control the charging behavior of all electric vehicles, then it will optimize the charging time according to the load condition of the power grid. At this time, the ideal power grid load curve can be obtained. At the beginning of IEC61851.1, the PWM control guidance circuit followed by electric vehicle charging is to effectively control the power load. China's power industry, if it is able to actively participate in the research and investment of intelligent charging and actively guide the future communication of the whole ISO15118 network, the electric vehicle charging load should not be that big problem for the power grid.


Charging pile

Figure 7 distribution data mining

Therefore, the big data research and analysis of the power grid is a very interesting optimization direction. Of course, this stage can only be used in some places.


Summary:


1) limited to the space, the problems in the rural areas, separately, say that sometimes the distribution network in some rural areas is slightly better than southeast Asia because of the lack of funding.


2) the power grid has a lot of practical experience, you have to say nothing of it, accounting for the advantages of not doing the charging facilities is wrong, in the original distribution network system, the surface of the charging pile, is also the consumption of its own load rate resources.


In this field, in fact, there are differences between the US power grid structure and the situation in Japan. Electric cars are the car industry, power electronics, IT industry to carry on collision and cross, only rely on the electric car enterprises in China to overtake the curve, but not in the system level to consider and measure the problem, some things do not do well.



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Key word:Chargingpile

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